Ch – 2 Components Of Food

  • Different food items are eaten in different parts of India.
  • Each meal consists of at least one grain item.
  • The components needed by our body to survive are known as ‘nutrients’.
  • The major nutrients in our food are named carbohydrates, proteins, fats, vitamins and minerals.
  • In addition, food contains dietary fibres and water which are also needed by our body.
  • To test the presence of carbohydrates, we need dilute iodine solution.
  • Dilute iodine solution can be prepared by adding a few drops of tincture iodine in a test tube half filled with water.
  • While testing with dilute solution, if the food item turns into blue-black colour, then it means it contains starch.
  • Carbohydrates are mostly found in the form of sugar and starch.
  • They provide us with energy.
  • Some of the food items that contain carbohydrates are potato, honey, wheat, etc.
  • To test the presence of proteins, one needs solution of copper sulphate and solution of caustic soda.
  • On adding these solutions if the food item turns into a violet colour, then it shows the presence of proteins.
  • Proteins are needed for the growth and repair of our body.
  • That’s why they are known as ‘body building foods’.
  • Some of the food items that contain proteins are yogurt, meat, fish, etc.
  • To check presence of fats, one must keep the food item on a paper and press it.
  • If the paper shows an oily patch, then that food item contains fats.
  • Some of the food items rich in fats are butter, cheese, oil, etc.
  • Fats and carbohydrates are known as ‘energy giving foods’.
  • Vitamins help in protecting our body against diseases.
  • Different kinds of vitamins are there like Vitamin A, Vitamin B, Vitamin C, etc.
  • Vitamin A keeps our skin and eyes healthy.
  • Vitamin C helps body to fight against many diseases.
  • Vitamin D helps our body to use calcium for bones and teeth.
  • Some sources of Vitamin A are papaya, carrot, mango, etc.
  • Some sources of Vitamin B are rice, wheat, liver, etc.
  • Some sources of Vitamin C are guava, lemon, amla, etc.
  • Some sources of Vitamin D are egg, fish, liver, etc.
  • We get Vitamin D from sunlight.
  • Some important minerals needed by our body are calcium, iodine, phosphorous, etc.
  • Besides these nutrients, our body needs dietary fibres and water.
  • Dietary fibres are also known as roughage.
  • Roughage is mainly provided by plant products in our foods.
  • Whole grains and pulses, potatoes, fresh fruits and vegetables are main sources of roughage.
  • Roughage does not provide any nutrient to our body, but is an essential component of our food and adds to its bulk.
  • This helps our body get rid of undigested food.
  • Water helps our body to absorb nutrients from food.
  • It also helps in throwing out some wastes from body as urine and sweat.
  • The diet which contains all the important nutrients in appropriate amount is known as ‘balanced diet’.
  • Washing vegetables after cutting or peeling them, results in loosing of important vitamins and minerals.
  • Vitamin C easily gets destroyed by heating.
  • The intake of too much fats rich food will lead to ‘obesity’.
  • Diseases that occur due to lack of nutrients over a long period are called deficiency diseases.
  • If a person does not get enough proteins in his/her food for a long time, he/she is likely to have stunted growth, swelling of face, discolouration of hair, skin diseases and diarrhoea.
  • If the diet is deficient in both carbohydrates and proteins for a long period of time, the growth may stop completely. Such a person becomes very lean and thin and so weak that he/she may not even be able to move.
  • Deficiency of Vitamin A causes Night Blindness.
  • Deficiency of Vitamin B1 causes Beri-Beri.
  • Deficiency of Vitamin C causes Scurvy.
  • Deficiency of Vitamin D causes Rickets.
  • Deficiency of Calcium can cause bone and tooth decay.
  • Deficiency of Iodine causes Goiter.
  • Deficiency of Iron causes Anaemia.

Published by Priya Prakash

In the midst of winter, i found there was within me an invincible summer ~ Albert Camus

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