Ch – 7 Getting To Know Plants

  • Based on some features most plants can be classified into three categories: herbs, shrubs and trees.
  • Plants with green and tender stems are called herbs. They are usually short and may not have many branches. Eg: Coriander, Mustard.
  • Plants that develop branches near the base of stem. And the stem is hard but not very thick. Such plants are called shrubs. Eg: Rose, Tulsi.
  • Some plants are very tall and have hard and thick stem. The stems have branches in the upper part, much above the ground. Such plants are called trees. Eg: Banyan, Peepal.
  • Plants with weak stems that cannot stand upright but spread on the ground are called creepers. Eg: Money plant, Strawberry.
  • Plants with weak stems that take support and climb up are called climbers. Eg: Grape vine, Bitter gourd.
  • The part of leaf by which it is attached to the stem is called petiole.
  • The broad, green part of the leaf is called lamina or leaf blade.
  • The lines on the leaf are called veins.
  • The thick vein which runs through the middle of the leaf is known as midrib.
  • The design made by veins in a leaf is called the leaf venation.
  • If this design is net-like on both sides of midrib, then the venation is reticulate venation. Eg: Hibiscus, Mango.
  • If the veins are running parallel to each other, then it is parallel venation. Eg: Banana, Grass.
  • The water released by plants in the atmosphere is known as Transpiration.
  • Leaves prepare their food in the presence of sunlight and a green coloured substance present in them known as chlorophyll.
  • For this, they also use water and carbon dioxide. This process is called photosynthesis.
  • Oxygen is given out in this process.
  • The food prepared by leaves ultimately gets stored in different parts of plant.
  • Leaves as known as ‘food factories’ or ‘kitchen of the plant’.
  • Roots help to anchor the plants firmly in the soil.
  • If the plant has one main root system which goes down deep into the soil, then such a root system is known as tap root system. Eg: Carrot, Radish.
  • If the plant has network of numerous roots instead of one main root then such a root system is known as fibrous root system. Eg: Grass, Wheat.
  • Plants with fibrous root systems have parallel venation.
  • Plants with tap root system have reticulate venation.
  • Roots absorb water and minerals from the soil and the stem conducts these to leaves and other parts of the plant.
  • The most attractive part of a flower is its petals which attract honeybees.
  • The bud is usually covered by small leaf like structures, they are known as sepals.
  • The male reproductive part of a flower is known as stamen.
  • The female reproductive part of a flower is known as pistil.
  • The parts of stamen are anther and filament.
  • The parts of pistil are style, ovary and stigma.
  • The number of sepals, petals, stamens and pistils may also be different in different flowers. Some of these parts may even be absent at times.

Published by Priya Prakash

In the midst of winter, i found there was within me an invincible summer ~ Albert Camus

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