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- Based on some features most plants can be classified into three categories: herbs, shrubs and trees.
- Plants with green and tender stems are called herbs. They are usually short and may not have many branches. Eg: Coriander, Mustard.
- Plants that develop branches near the base of stem. And the stem is hard but not very thick. Such plants are called shrubs. Eg: Rose, Tulsi.
- Some plants are very tall and have hard and thick stem. The stems have branches in the upper part, much above the ground. Such plants are called trees. Eg: Banyan, Peepal.
- Plants with weak stems that cannot stand upright but spread on the ground are called creepers. Eg: Money plant, Strawberry.
- Plants with weak stems that take support and climb up are called climbers. Eg: Grape vine, Bitter gourd.
- The part of leaf by which it is attached to the stem is called petiole.
- The broad, green part of the leaf is called lamina or leaf blade.
- The lines on the leaf are called veins.
- The thick vein which runs through the middle of the leaf is known as midrib.
- The design made by veins in a leaf is called the leaf venation.
- If this design is net-like on both sides of midrib, then the venation is reticulate venation. Eg: Hibiscus, Mango.
- If the veins are running parallel to each other, then it is parallel venation. Eg: Banana, Grass.
- The water released by plants in the atmosphere is known as Transpiration.
- Leaves prepare their food in the presence of sunlight and a green coloured substance present in them known as chlorophyll.
- For this, they also use water and carbon dioxide. This process is called photosynthesis.
- Oxygen is given out in this process.
- The food prepared by leaves ultimately gets stored in different parts of plant.
- Leaves as known as ‘food factories’ or ‘kitchen of the plant’.
- Roots help to anchor the plants firmly in the soil.
- If the plant has one main root system which goes down deep into the soil, then such a root system is known as tap root system. Eg: Carrot, Radish.
- If the plant has network of numerous roots instead of one main root then such a root system is known as fibrous root system. Eg: Grass, Wheat.
- Plants with fibrous root systems have parallel venation.
- Plants with tap root system have reticulate venation.
- Roots absorb water and minerals from the soil and the stem conducts these to leaves and other parts of the plant.
- The most attractive part of a flower is its petals which attract honeybees.
- The bud is usually covered by small leaf like structures, they are known as sepals.
- The male reproductive part of a flower is known as stamen.
- The female reproductive part of a flower is known as pistil.
- The parts of stamen are anther and filament.
- The parts of pistil are style, ovary and stigma.
- The number of sepals, petals, stamens and pistils may also be different in different flowers. Some of these parts may even be absent at times.