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- The surroundings where plants and animals live, is called their habitat.
- The habitat provides food, water, air, shelter and other needs to organisms.
- The presence of specific features and habits, which enable a plant or an animal to survive in a particular habitat, is called adaptation.
- Some of the habitats are desert, mountain, polar regions, ocean, etc.
- The camels have long legs to keep their bodies away from the heat of sand.
- They excrete small amount of urine, their dung is dry and they do not sweat.
- Other animals living in deserts such as rats and snakes stay in burrows to avoid heat.
- Plants in desert have spines instead of leaves in order to reduce loss of water through transpiration.
- Adaptation of organisms, differ depending on their place of dwelling.
- The plants and animals that live on land are said to live in terrestrial habitats. Eg: Lion, Elephant.
- Terrestrial habitats consist of deserts, mountains, forests, grasslands, etc.
- Small changes that take place in the body of a single organism over short periods, to overcome small problems due to changes in the surroundings, are called acclimatisation.
- The habitats of plants and animals that live in water are called aquatic habitats.
- Some examples of aquatic habitats are oceans, rivers, lakes, ponds etc.
- The organisms, both plants and animals, living in a habitat are its biotic components.
- The non-living things such as rocks, soil, air and water in the habitat constitute its abiotic components.
- The process of changing of seeds in to plants is called germination.
- Adaptation does not take place in a short time because the abiotic factors of a region also change very slowly.
- The trees in mountain regions are cone shaped and their leaves are needle-like.
- Animals living in mountain regions have thick skin or fur to protect them from cold.
- The animals hunted by predators to eat are known as preys.
- Animals that hunt other animals to eat are known as predators.
- The predators have sharp claws and their eyes are in the front of the face on order to detect the location of prey.
- The preys have strong teeth to chew grass, long ears to catch the movement of predators and eyes on the side of head to look in all directions.
- The aquatic animals mostly breathe through their gills. Some sea animals like dolphins and whales breathe through blowholes.
- The roots of aquatic plants are much reduced in size and their main function is to hold plants in place. Their stems are long and hollow.
- Frogs live on both land and water. They have webbed feet to swim and strong back legs to leap on land.
- The characteristics of living organisms are they need food, they grow, they reproduce, they respire, they respond to stimuli, they die and they excrete.
- Food gives organisms the energy needed for them to grow.
- Respiration is necessary for all living organisms. It is through respiration that the body finally obtains energy from the food it takes.
- Changes in our surroundings that make us respond to them, are called stimuli.
- Living things produce more of their own kind through reproduction. It takes place in many different ways, for different organisms.