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- A map is a representation or a drawing of the earth’s surface or a part of it drawn on a flat surface according to a scale.
- Different types of maps are:
- Physical Maps
- Shows natural features like mountains, plateaus, plains, rivers, etc.
- Political Maps
- Shows cities, countries, towns, states, etc.
- Thematic Maps
- Focus on specific information like roads, railways, rainfall, etc.
- Components of Maps:
- Distance between places is shown using scales.
- Scale is the ratio between the actual distance on the ground and the distance shown on the map.
- When large areas like continents or countries are to be shown on a paper, then we use a small scale.
- When a small area like your village or town is to be shown on paper, then we use a large scale.
- Large scale maps give more information than small scale maps.
- There are four major directions: North, South, East, West. Also known as Cardinal points.
- Other four directions North-East, North-West, South-East and South-West are known as Intermediate directions.
- Compass is also used to find directions. Its needles always point to North-South direction.
- Certain letters, shapes, colours, pictures and lines are used to represent certain features like buildings, forests, water sources, etc.
- A sketch is a drawing mainly based on memory and spot observation and not to scale.
- A plan is a drawing of a small area on a large scale.