Ch – 8 Human Environmental Interactions: The Tropical And The Subtropical Region

  • The tropical region lies near the equator that’s why it is referred to as ‘equatorial region’.
  • The place where a river flows into another body of water is called the river’s mouth.
  • Amazon Basin
  • The Amazon river basin drains portions of Brazil, parts of Peru, Bolivia, Ecuador, Columbia and a small part of Venezuela.
  • Climate in the basin is hot and wet.
  • At day, temperatures are high with high humidity and at night, the temperature goes down but humidity still remains high.
  • The forests are in fact so thick that the dense “roof” created by leaves and branches does not allow the sunlight to reach the ground.
  • The ground remains damp and dark.
  • Orchids, bromeliads grow as plant parasites.
  • Birds such as toucans , humming birds, bird of paradise with their brilliantly coloured plumage, oversized bills for eating, etc are found here.
  • Animals like monkeys, sloth and ant-eating tapirs are found here.
  • Various species of reptiles and snakes like Crocodiles, snakes, pythons, Anaconda and boa constrictor are found here.
  • Several species of fishes including the flesh eating Piranha fish is also found in the river.
  • People in this area practice slash and burn method of farming.
  • Men hunt and fish while women take care of their families by growing crops.
  • Mainly crops like tapioca, pineapple and sweet potato are grown.
  • The staple food is manioc, also known as cassava that grows under the ground like the potato.
  • Cash crops like coffee, maize and cocoa are also grown.
  • Some families live in thatched houses shaped like beehives while some live in large apartment-like houses called “Maloca” with a steeply slanting roof.
  • The developmental activities are leading to the gradual destruction of the biologically diverse rainforests.
  • Ganga-Brahmaputra Basin
  • The tributaries of rivers Ganga and Brahmaputra together form the Ganga-Brahmaputra basin in the Indian subcontinent.
  • The tributaries of the River Ganga like the Ghaghra, the Son, the Chambal, the Gandak, the Kosi and the tributaries of Brahmaputra drain it.
  • The region is dominated by monsoon climate.
  • Agriculture is the main occupation of the people where flat land is available to grow crops.
  • The main crop is paddy. Other crops grown in this region are maize, wheat, sorghum, gram, millets, sugarcane, jute, etc.
  • In the Ganga and Brahmaputra plain tropical deciduous trees grow, along with teak, sal and peepal. Thick bamboo groves are common in the Brahmaputra plain.
  • In parts of Uttaranchal, Sikkim and Arunachal Pradesh, coniferous trees like pine, deodar and fir can be seen.
  • Animals like elephants, tigers, deer and monkeys are common.
  • The most popular varieties of the fish are the rohu, catla and hilsa.
  • Fish and rice is the staple diet of the people living in the area.
  • The cities of Allahabad, Kanpur, Varanasi, Lucknow, Patna and Kolkata all with the population of more than ten lakhs are located along the River Ganga.
  • Tourism is an important activity in the basin.

Published by Priya Prakash

In the midst of winter, i found there was within me an invincible summer ~ Albert Camus

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