Ch – 6 Colonialism & The City

  • In the late eighteenth century, Calcutta, Bombay and Madras rose in importance as Presidency cities.
  • In these cities, Indians lived in the “black areas” and British lived in “white areas“.
  • Many people started moving to back to their places as the trade moved to new centers, this was often described as de-urbanisation.
  • By the early 20th century, only 11% of Indians were living in cities.
  • The most splendid capital city built between 12th and 17th centuries is Shahjahanabad built by Shah Jahan in 1639.
  • During Shah Jahan’s rule, Delhi was an important center of Sufi culture.
  • In 1803, British gained control of Delhi after defeating Marathas.
  • The modern Delhi was developed after 1911 when it became the capital of British India.
  • The period from 1830 to 1857 is referred as “Delhi renaissance period“.
  • After the revolt of 1857, Delhi remained under the control of rebel groups.
  • When British regained it, they embarked on a campaign of revenge and plunder.
  • In 1877, Viceroy Lytton organized a durbar to acknowledge Queen Victoria as the Empress of India.
  • In 1911, a durbar was held to celebrate the crowning of King George V. The capital shift from Calcutta to Delhi was also announced at the durbar.
  • New Delhi was constructed as a 10 square mile city on Raisina Hill, south of the existing city.
  • Two architects namely Edward Lutyens and Herbert Baker were called on to design New Delhi and its buildings.
  • It took 20 years to build New Delhi.
  • The features of government buildings were borrowed from different periods of India’s imperial history.
  • After partition, Delhi became a city of refugees.
  • New colonies, shops and stalls were set up to fulfill the needs of refugees.
  • Due to over-population, the drainage system and water supply system collapsed.
  • In 1888, an extension scheme called the Lahore Gate Improvement Scheme was planned by Robert Clarke for the walled city residents.
  • The Delhi improvement trust was set up in 1936.

Published by Priya Prakash

In the midst of winter, i found there was within me an invincible summer ~ Albert Camus

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