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- The different landforms are formed as a result of internal or external process.
- Internal process leads to the upliftment and sinking of the earth’s surface at several places.
- External process is the continuous wearing down and rebuilding of the land surface.
- The wearing away of the earth’s surface is called erosion.
- The surface is rebuilt by the process of deposition.
- Based on the elevation and slope, the landforms are of three types: mountains, plateaus and plains.
- It is the natural elevation of the earth surface.
- The permanently frozen rivers on some mountains are known as “glaciers“.
- Less people live here because of harsh climate.
- They are storehouse of water.
- It can be arranged in a line known as “ranges“.
- Three types of mountains are there:
- Fold Mountains:
- Aravali range in India is one of the oldest fold mountains in the world.
- Some other old fold mountains are Appalachians in North America and Ural mountains in Russia.
- Himalayan mountains and Alps are young fold mountains.
- Block Mountains:
- They are created when large areas are broken and displaced vertically.
- Uplifted blocks are termed as “horsts“.
- Lowered blocks are termed as “graben“.
- Eg: Rhine valley and Vosges mountain in Europe.
- Volcanic Mountains:
- They are formed due to volcanic eruptions.
- Eg: Kilimanjaro in Africa, Mt.Fujiyama in Japan.
- It is an elevated flat land.
- Its height often varies from few hundred metres to several thousand metres.
- Deccan plateau in India is one of the oldest plateaus of the world.
- Some other examples: East African plateau in Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda, Western plateau of Australia.
- Tibetan plateau is the highest (height-4,000 to 6,000 metres) plateau in the world.
- Plateaus are rich in mineral deposits. Eg: African plateau is famous for gold and diamond mining, Chhotanagpur plateau is is rich in iron, manganese and coal.
- Lava plateaus are good for cultivation as they have black soil.
- They are stretch of flat land.
- They are generally not more than 200 metres above mean sea level.
- They are fertile.
- They are thickly populated.
- The largest plains made by rivers are found in Asia and North America.
- Eg: Ganga-Brahmaputra plains in India, Yangtze in China.