Ch – 6 Major Landforms Of The Earth

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  • The different landforms are formed as a result of internal or external process.
  • Internal process leads to the upliftment and sinking of the earth’s surface at several places.
  • External process is the continuous wearing down and rebuilding of the land surface.
  • The wearing away of the earth’s surface is called erosion.
  • The surface is rebuilt by the process of deposition.
  • Based on the elevation and slope, the landforms are of three types: mountains, plateaus and plains.

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  • Mountains:
  • It is the natural elevation of the earth surface.
  • The permanently frozen rivers on some mountains are known as “glaciers“.
  • Less people live here because of harsh climate.
  • They are storehouse of water.
  • It can be arranged in a line known as “ranges“.

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  • Three types of mountains are there:
    • Fold Mountains:
    • Aravali range in India is one of the oldest fold mountains in the world.
    • Some other old fold mountains are Appalachians in North America and Ural mountains in Russia.
    • Himalayan mountains and Alps are young fold mountains.
    • Block Mountains:
    • They are created when large areas are broken and displaced vertically.
    • Uplifted blocks are termed as “horsts“.
    • Lowered blocks are termed as “graben“.
    • Eg: Rhine valley and Vosges mountain in Europe.
    • Volcanic Mountains:
    • They are formed due to volcanic eruptions.
    • Eg: Kilimanjaro in Africa, Mt.Fujiyama in Japan.
  • Plateaus:
  • It is an elevated flat land.
  • Its height often varies from few hundred metres to several thousand metres.
  • Deccan plateau in India is one of the oldest plateaus of the world.
  • Some other examples: East African plateau in Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda, Western plateau of Australia.
  • Tibetan plateau is the highest (height-4,000 to 6,000 metres) plateau in the world.
  • Plateaus are rich in mineral deposits. Eg: African plateau is famous for gold and diamond mining, Chhotanagpur plateau is is rich in iron, manganese and coal.
  • Lava plateaus are good for cultivation as they have black soil.

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  • Plains:
  • They are stretch of flat land.
  • They are generally not more than 200 metres above mean sea level.
  • They are fertile.
  • They are thickly populated.
  • The largest plains made by rivers are found in Asia and North America.
  • Eg: Ganga-Brahmaputra plains in India, Yangtze in China.

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Published by Priya Prakash

In the midst of winter, i found there was within me an invincible summer ~ Albert Camus

6 thoughts on “Ch – 6 Major Landforms Of The Earth

  1. Hi Priya:
    Thank you for letting me know that you liked my post in PMKamath uvacha blog. I went through your own blog, It seems you are a scientist. Much of it I could not understand. But your next ones i would like to go thruogh.
    P M Kamath

    Liked by 1 person

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