Human with their abilities and demands turn themselves into ‘resources’.
Human resources differ in their educational levels, occupational levels, literacy levels, health conditions, income levels, age and sex.
Population Density is the number of people living in a unit area of the earth’s surface.
The average density of population in the whole world is 45 persons per km.
Highest population density – South Central Asia
Distribution of Population:
The way in which people are spread across the earth surface is known as the pattern of population distribution.
60% of world’s population stay in just 10 countries.
Many people live in northern hemisphere than southern hemisphere.
Factors affecting distribution of population:
Topography: People prefer plains over mountains and plateaus.
Climate: People avoid living in extreme cold or hot climatic regions.
Soil: The fertile land is suitable for agriculture, so population will be more in such areas.
Water: People prefer to live in areas where water is easily available.
Minerals: Areas with mineral deposits are more populated.
Social, Cultural and Economic Factors:
Social: Areas with better education, housing and health facilities are densely populated.
Cultural: People are attracted to places with spiritual or cultural significance.
Economic: People prefer to live in industrial areas in order to get good employment opportunities.
Factors like birth rate, death rate, migration, etc. play an important role in population change.
The number of live births per 1,000 people is known as Birth Rate.
The number of deaths per 1,000 people is known as Death Rate.
Migration is the movement of people in and out of an area.
The difference between the birth rate and death rate of a country is called the Natural Growth Rate.
Emigrants are those who leave a country.
Immigrants are those who arrive in a country.
It refers to the structure of the population.
It helps us to know how many males or females, which age group they belong to, how educated they are and what type of occupations they are employed in, what their income levels and health conditions are.
To study population composition, age-sex pyramid or population pyramid is made.
Population pyramid shows:
Total population divided into various age groups.
Percentage of population sub-divided into males and females.
It also tells how many dependents are there. Two groups of dependents are : young dependents ( aged below 15 years ) and elderly dependents ( aged over 65 years ).
The shape of pyramid tells us about the people living in a country.
If the birth rate and death rate is high – Pyramid base will be broad and it rapidly narrows towards the top.
If the birth rate is low, then pyramid will be narrow at the base.
If death rates among young are decreasing then pyramid is broader in the younger age groups.
Skilled and spirited people with positive outlook are the future of any nation.