Ch – 8 India : Climate, Vegetation & Wildlife

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Major Seasons recognised in India are:

  • Winter Season ( December to February )
  • Dry winds blow from north to south.
  • Temperature goes down in northern India.
  • Summer Season ( March to May )
  • Temperature goes up.
  • Hot dry winds known as ‘loo’ blow during the day.
  • Rainy Season ( June to September )
  • Winds blow from Arabian Sea and Bay of Bengal towards the land.
  • When moisture carrying winds strike mountain barriers, the rainfall occurs.
  • Retreating Monsoon ( October-November )
  • Winds move back from mainland.
  • South India receives rainfall.

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Due to varied climatic conditions, India has a wide range of natural vegetation.

Vegetation of India can be categorised as:

  • Tropical Rain Forest:
  • Trees found – Mahogany, Ebony, Rosewood, etc.
  • Found in – Andaman & Nicobar Islands, parts of North-Eastern states and a narrow strip of Western slope of Western Ghats.
  • Tropical Deciduous Forests ( Monsoon Forests ):
  • Trees found – Sal, Peepal, Shisham, etc.
  • Found in – Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Jharkhand, Chhattisgarh, Orissa and in some parts of Maharashtra.
  • Thorny Bushes:
  • Trees found – Cactus, Babool, Keekar, etc.
  • Found in – Rajasthan, Punjab, Haryana, eastern slopes of Western Ghats and Gujarat.
  • Mountain Vegetation:
  • Trees found – Chir, Pine, Deodar, etc.
  • Found in – Mountains at height between 1500 metres and 2500 metres.
  • Mangrove Forest:
  • Main tree – Sundari
  • Found in – Sunderbans in West Bengal and in Andaman & Nicobar islands.

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Wildlife:

  • Tiger is our national animal.
  • Peacock is our national bird.
  • Asiatic lions are found in Gir forest, Gujarat.
  • Elephants & rhinoceroses are found in Assam.
  • Elephants are found in Kerala & Karnataka.
  • Camels, Wild Asses are found in Great Rann of Kutch.
  • Wild goats, Snow leopards are found in Himalayan region.
  • Snakes like Cobras & Kraits are also found here.
  • In order to protect forest, government have set up National parks, Sanctuaries & Biosphere Reserves.
  • Government has also introduced projects like Project Tiger & Project Elephant to protect these animals.
  • First week of October is celebrated as “Wildlife week“, to create awareness about conserving animals.

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Published by Priya Prakash

In the midst of winter, i found there was within me an invincible summer ~ Albert Camus

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