Ch – 5 Industries

Industry refers to an economic activity that is concerned with production of goods, extraction of minerals or the provision of services.

Classification of Industries:

It can be classified on the basis of raw materials, size and ownership.

Raw materials:

  • Based on the type of raw materials used by the industry, we can further classify them into:
  • Agro Based Industry:
  • It uses plant and animal based products as their raw materials.
  • Eg: Diary products, Leather industries
  • Mineral Based Industry:
  • It uses mineral ores as their raw materials.
  • Eg: Iron & Steel industry, Building materials industry
  • Marine Based Industry:
  • It uses products from sea and oceans as their raw materials.
  • Eg: Sea food processing industry, Fish oil industry
  • Forest Based Industry:
  • It uses forest produce as their raw materials.
  • Eg: Pharmaceutical industry, Paper industry

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Size:

  • Based on the amount of capital invested, number of people employed and the volume of production, we can further classify them as:
  • Cottage or Household industry:
  • Here products are mostly manufactured by hands.
  • Eg: Basket weaving, Pottery
  • Small Scale Industry:
  • It uses lesser amount of capital and technology compared to large scale industries.
  • Eg: Toy making, Honey processing
  • Large Scale Industry:
  • It has high capital investment and superior technology.
  • Eg: Automobile industry, Heavy machinery industry

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Ownership:

  • Based on the ownership of industry, they can be classified as:
  • Private Sector Industry:
  • It is owned and operated by individuals or a group of individuals.
  • Eg: Reliance Industries Limited, Tata Consultancy Services
  • Public Sector Industry:
  • It is owned and operated by the government.
  • Eg: State Bank of India, Indian Oil Corporation
  • Joint Sector Industry:
  • It is owned and operated by the state and individuals or a group of individuals.
  • Eg: Maruti Udyog, Cochin Refineries
  • Co-operative Sector Industries:
  • It is owned and operated by the producers or suppliers of raw materials, workers or both.
  • Eg: Anand Milk Union Limited, Sudha Dairy

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Factors Affecting Location Of Industries:

  • Availability of raw materials
  • Land
  • Labour
  • Water
  • Power
  • Capital
  • Transport
  • Market

Industrial System:

  • It consists of inputs, processes and outputs.
  • Inputs include raw materials, labour, cost of land, transport, power and other infrastructure.
  • Processes include the activities which convert the raw materials into finished products.
  • Outputs consist of end products and income earned from it.

Industrial Regions:

  • Important Industrial regions are mostly located in the temperate zones, near sea-ports and coal fields.
  • Major industrial regions of the world are eastern North America, western and central Europe, eastern Europe, and eastern Asia.
  • Major industrial regions of India are Mumbai-Pune cluster, Bangalore-Tamil Nadu region, Hugli region, Ahmedabad-Baroda region, etc.

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Published by Priya Prakash

In the midst of winter, i found there was within me an invincible summer ~ Albert Camus

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