In this session, we will study about the institution – Parliament, where all the major decisions are presented, debated, approved or rejected.
Parliament is a national assembly of elected representatives.
Importance Of A Parliament:
- It is the final authority for making laws in any country.
- It exercises a control over the ruling government.
- It controls all the money that the government have.
- It is forum of debate and discussion on any public issue or national policy.
- It can seek information about any matter.
Two Houses Of Parliament:
- In most countries, Parliament is divided into two parts, known as Chambers or Houses.
- One House is usually directly elected by people.
- The second House is elected indirectly and performs special functions.
- In India, the two houses are known as Council of States (Rajya Sabha) and the House of the People (Lok Sabha).
- The President is also a part of Parliament even though he/she is not a member of either House.
- Rajya Sabha is also known as “Upper Chamber“.
- Rajya Sabha should not consist of more than 250 members.
- Out of 250, 238 members represent States and Union Territories and 12 members are nominated by President for their contribution in art, science, literature and social services.
- Lok Sabha is also known as “Lower Chamber“.
- Maximum strength of Lok Sabha is 552 members.
- Out of 552, 530 members represent the States, 20 members represent the Union Territories and 2 members are elected from the Anglo-Indian Community.
- At present, there are 545 members in Lok Sabha.
- An ordinary law needs to be passed by both Houses.
- If any difference of opinion arises in both Houses, a joint session of both Houses is held. And because of the size of Lok Sabha, usually the view of Lok Sabha prevails in the end.
- In money matters, Lok Sabha has more power than Rajya Sabha.
- The budget or any finance related law passed by Lok Sabha, can not be rejected by Rajya Sabha.
- The Rajya Sabha can delay it for 14 days or suggest changes that can or can not be accepted by Lok Sabha.
- The Lok Sabha also controls the Council of Ministers.
- If a “no confidence” motion is passed by Lok Sabha, then all ministers of ruling party including Prime Minister, have to quit.