Ch – 5 Working Of Institutions (Part 3)

Political Executive:

  • At different levels of government, there are functionaries who take day-to-day decisions but do not exercise supreme power on behalf of people, such persons are known as “executives“.
  • They execute the decisions taken by the government.
  • In India, there are two types of executives:
  • One who is directly elected by people for a specific period, they are known as “Political executive“.
  • The other is appointed for a long term, they are called “Civil Servants“.

Prime Minister & Council Of Ministers:

  • Prime Minister is the most important political institution of the country.
  • Prime Minister is appointed by President.
  • He/She continues in power as long as he/she remains the leader of majority party or coalition.
  • After appointment of Prime Minister, President takes his/her advice to appoint other Ministers.
  • Prime Minister is free to choose ministers as long as they are members of Parliament.
  • The person who is not a member of Parliament can also become a Minister, but he/she has to get elected to one of the Houses of Parliament within six months of appointment as Minister.
  • Council of Ministers usually has 60 to 80 Ministers of different ranks:
    • Cabinet Ministers are the top-level ministers who handle major ministries.
    • Ministers of State with Independent Charge are usually in-charge of smaller ministries.
    • Ministers of State are attached to and required to assist Cabinet Ministers.
  • Every ministry has secretaries, who are civil servants. They provide necessary background information to the Ministers.


  • President is the head of the State.
  • He supervises the overall functioning of all political institutions in the country.
  • The elected Members of Parliament and the elected Members of the Legislative Assemblies elect President.
  • All government activities take place in the name of President.
  • All major decisions and laws are issued in President’s name.
  • He is the supreme commander of the defence forces of India.
  • All major appointments are made in the name of President.
  • All international treaties and agreements are made in the name of President.
  • Decisions made by President are based on the advice of Council of Ministers.
  • A bill passed by the Parliament, becomes a law only when President gives assent to it.


  • An independent and powerful judiciary is important for any democratic country.
  • In India, Supreme Court is the apex court.
  • India has an integrated judiciary which means that the decisions of Supreme Court are binding on all other courts of our country.
  • The judges of Supreme Courts are appointed by President on advice of Prime Minister and in consultation with the Chief Justice of Supreme Court.
  • The senior most judge of the Supreme Court is usually appointed as the Chief Justice.
  • A judge can only be removed by impeachment motion passed by two-third members of the two Houses of the Parliament.
  • The Indian judiciary acts as a guardian of Fundamental Rights.
  • Courts can pass judgements and directives to protect human rights and interests.

Published by Priya Prakash

In the midst of winter, i found there was within me an invincible summer ~ Albert Camus

3 thoughts on “Ch – 5 Working Of Institutions (Part 3)

  1. You are very similar to us here in the United States

    Pay attention to us – because we are showing the world the cracks

    Let Trump be a lesson to the world… we now have issues with things 🤨 like everything 🤨

    So I do love the system – but I will say needs better safe guards to protect against an evil mind taking power. We were not careful.

    Now we have huge mess to handle. I do not like him and I hope the world takes note of what can happen when power goes into wrong hands

    Liked by 1 person

      1. Oh yes very! I was horrified seeing that also!! 💔

        I think after this, we will make some safe guards on this issue. Hopefully 🙏

        I never ever want to go through this again!! Omg worst president ever!!

        Hopefully we learn from this.. 🙏🙏🙏🙏 I hope we learn!!

        Liked by 1 person

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