- At different levels of government, there are functionaries who take day-to-day decisions but do not exercise supreme power on behalf of people, such persons are known as “executives“.
- They execute the decisions taken by the government.
- In India, there are two types of executives:
- One who is directly elected by people for a specific period, they are known as “Political executive“.
- The other is appointed for a long term, they are called “Civil Servants“.
Prime Minister & Council Of Ministers:
- Prime Minister is the most important political institution of the country.
- Prime Minister is appointed by President.
- He/She continues in power as long as he/she remains the leader of majority party or coalition.
- After appointment of Prime Minister, President takes his/her advice to appoint other Ministers.
- Prime Minister is free to choose ministers as long as they are members of Parliament.
- The person who is not a member of Parliament can also become a Minister, but he/she has to get elected to one of the Houses of Parliament within six months of appointment as Minister.
- Council of Ministers usually has 60 to 80 Ministers of different ranks:
- Cabinet Ministers are the top-level ministers who handle major ministries.
- Ministers of State with Independent Charge are usually in-charge of smaller ministries.
- Ministers of State are attached to and required to assist Cabinet Ministers.
- Every ministry has secretaries, who are civil servants. They provide necessary background information to the Ministers.
- President is the head of the State.
- He supervises the overall functioning of all political institutions in the country.
- The elected Members of Parliament and the elected Members of the Legislative Assemblies elect President.
- All government activities take place in the name of President.
- All major decisions and laws are issued in President’s name.
- He is the supreme commander of the defence forces of India.
- All major appointments are made in the name of President.
- All international treaties and agreements are made in the name of President.
- Decisions made by President are based on the advice of Council of Ministers.
- A bill passed by the Parliament, becomes a law only when President gives assent to it.
- An independent and powerful judiciary is important for any democratic country.
- In India, Supreme Court is the apex court.
- India has an integrated judiciary which means that the decisions of Supreme Court are binding on all other courts of our country.
- The judges of Supreme Courts are appointed by President on advice of Prime Minister and in consultation with the Chief Justice of Supreme Court.
- The senior most judge of the Supreme Court is usually appointed as the Chief Justice.
- A judge can only be removed by impeachment motion passed by two-third members of the two Houses of the Parliament.
- The Indian judiciary acts as a guardian of Fundamental Rights.
- Courts can pass judgements and directives to protect human rights and interests.