Animalia

The animals are classified into ten groups based on the body design, germinal layers, presence of notochord, etc. The ten groups are:

  1. Porifera
  2. Coelenterata
  3. Platyhelminthes
  4. Nematoda
  5. Annelida
  6. Arthropoda
  7. Mollusca
  8. Echinodermata
  9. Protochordata
  10. Vertebrata

Porifera:

  • They are non-motile animals
  • They have holes or pores all over their bodies
  • Pores help in circulating water throughout the body
  • Their bodies are covered with hard outside layer or skeleton
  • They are mainly found in marine habitats.
  • Eg: Spongilla, Sycon

Coelenterata:

  • They have two layers of cells
  • They live in water
  • They have a cavity in the body
  • They either live in colonies or in solitary
  • Eg: Jellyfish, Hydra

Platyhelminthes:

  • Their body is bilaterally symmetrical
  • They have three layers of cells, which provides inside and outside body linings, that’s why they are known as “Triploblastic”
  • Their body is flattened dorsiventrally (from top to bottom)
  • They are either free-living or parasites
  • Eg: Planarians, Liverflukes

Nematoda:

  • Their body is bilaterally symmetrical
  • They are also triploblastic
  • They have cylindrical body
  • A sort of cavity or pseudocoelom is present on body
  • Eg: Ascaris, Roundworm

Annelida:

  • They are also bilaterally symmetrical and triploblastic
  • They have extensive organ differentiation in segmental fashion
  • They are found in fresh water, marine water and land
  • Eg: Leeches, Earthworms

Arthropoda:

  • They are the largest group of animals.
  • They are bilaterally symmetrical and segmented
  • They have jointed legs
  • They have open circulatory system
  • Eg: Prawns, Butterflies

Mollusca:

  • They have bilateral symmetry
  • They have an open circulatory system and kidney-like organs for excretion
  • They have a foot that is used for movement
  • Eg: Snail, Mussels

Echinodermata:

  • They are spiny skinned organisms
  • They are triploblastic and have a coelomic cavity
  • They have water driven tube system for movement
  • They have hard calcium carbonate structures for skeletons
  • Eg: Starfish, Urchins

Protochordata:

  • They are bilaterally symmetrical and triploblastic
  • They possess notochord which is a long rod-like support structure that runs along the back of the animal supporting the nervous tissue from the gut
  • They are marine animals
  • Eg: Balanoglossus, Herdemania

Vertebrata:

  • They have proper vertebral column and internal skeleton
  • They are bilaterally symmetrical, triploblastic, coelomic and segmented.
  • They have a complex differentiation of body tissues and organs
  • They are further grouped into five groups:
    • Pisces:
    • They are fish
    • Their skin is covered with scales
    • They have streamlined bodies
    • They are cold-blooded and their hearts have two chambers
    • They use their muscular tails for movement
    • Eg: Tuna, Shark
    • Amphibia:
    • They can live on land as well as in water
    • They have a three chambered heart
    • They have mucus glands in skin
    • Eg: Frogs, Salamander
    • Reptilia:
    • They are cold-blooded and breathe through lungs
    • Most of them have a three chambered heart
    • They lay eggs with tough outer coverings
    • Eg: Lizard, Turtle
    • Aves:
    • They are warm blooded and have a four chambered heart
    • Their forelimbs are modified into wings
    • They lay eggs
    • Their body is covered with feathers
    • All birds fall in this category
    • Mammalia:
    • They are warm blooded and have a four chambered heart
    • They have mammary glands
    • Sweat and oil glands are present in their skin

Published by Priya Prakash

In the midst of winter, i found there was within me an invincible summer ~ Albert Camus

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