Q.4: What kind of exchanges took place between nomadic pastoralists and settled agriculturists ?
Ans: The nomadic pastoralists exchanged wool, ghee, etc. with settled agriculturists for grain, cloth, utensils and other products.
Q.5: How was the administration of the Ahom state organised ?
Ans: The administration of the Ahom state was well-organised:
- The state depended on the forced labour. And those who were forced to work were called ‘paiks’.
- A census of population was taken.
- Gradually, people from heavily populated areas shifted to less populated areas. Thus, the clans were broken up.
- By the first half of the seventeenth century the administration became quite centralised.
Q.6: What changes took place in varna based society ?
Ans: With the growing economy and needs of society, people with new skills were required. Smaller castes, or jatis emerged within varnas. Many tribes and social groups were taken into the caste based society and given the status of jatis. Specialised artisans like smiths, carpenters and masons were also recognised as separate jatis by the Brahmanas. Jatis became the basis of organising society, rather than varnas.
Q.7: How did tribal societies change after being organised into a state ?
Ans: The changes that took place in tribal societies after being organised into a state are as following:
- The interaction with varna based society caused them to adapt and change.
- They took up diverse livelihoods.
- Over a period of time, many of them merged with caste based society.
- Many tribal clans gained power and replaced older rulers, especially in agricultural areas.
Q.8: Were the Banjaras important for the economy ?
Ans: The Banjaras were the most important trader-nomads. Their caravan was called tanda. They bought grain where it was cheaply available and carry it to places where it is dearer. From there, they again reload their oxen with anything that can be profitably sold in other places. These type of trading made Banjaras important for the economy.
Q.9: In what ways was the history of the Gonds different from that of the Ahoms ? Were there any similarities ?
Ans: The similarities between Gonds and Ahoms:
- The administration of these kingdoms were centralised.
- They both had strong economy.
- Both kingdoms were further divided into clans or garhs.
- They both faced Mughal invasion.
- They practiced shifting cultivation.
- Brahmanas were granted land by both Gond and Ahom rulers.
- Gonds were settled mostly in the central India while Ahoms were settled in the North-east India.
- The Gond society gradually got divided into unequal classes, while Ahom society didn’t.
- In Gond kingdoms, brahmanas were given land grants while in Ahom kingdoms, along with brahmanas, poets, scholars, and even peasants were granted with land.