Ch – 3 Drainage (Part 2)

The river with their tributaries form the “river system“. The river systems of Himalayan rivers are:

The Indus River System:

  • Indus river rises in Tibet, near Lake Mansoravar.
  • It enters India via the Ladakh district.
  • Tributaries like Zaskar, Nubra, Shyok and Hunza join it in Kashmir.
  • Satluj, Beas, Ravi, Chenab and Jhelum join it near Mithankot in Pakistan.
  • Indus is one of the longest rivers of the world.
  • In India, Indus’s basin is located in Jammu, Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh and Punjab.

The Ganga River System:

  • Ganga emerges from the mountains on to the plains in Haridwar.
  • The river Yamuna meets the Ganga at Allahabad.
  • Many tributaries from Himalayas like Ghaghara, Gandak and Kosi join Ganga.
  • These three tributaries flood most parts of northern plains every year.
  • The tributaries like Chambal, Betwa and Son come from the peninsular uplands.
  • Farakka in West Bengal is the northernmost point of the Ganga delta.
  • River bifurcates there, Bhagirathi-Hoogly flows southwards to the Bay of Bengal and the mainstream flows southwards and is joined by Brahmaputra, from there on it is known as Meghna.

The Brahmaputra River System:

  • The Brahmaputra originates in Tibet.
  • It enters India in Arunachal Pradesh via a gorge.
  • In Arunachal Pradesh, it is called ‘Dihang’.
  • It is joined by tributaries like Dibang, Lohit and Kenula in Assam.
  • It forms many riverine islands in Assam because of its braided channels.

The peninsular rivers are comparatively smaller. The river basins formed by peninsular rivers are:

The Narmada Basin:

  • Narmada river rises in the Amarkantak hills in Madhya Pradesh.
  • It flows west and drains into Arabian Sea.
  • On the its way to the sea, it creates many picturesque locations like Dhuadhar falls, Marble rocks, etc.
  • Its tributaries are short and join the main stream at right angles.

The Tapi Basin:

  • Tapi river originates in the Satpura Ranges in Betul district of Madhya Pradesh.
  • It covers parts of Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh and Gujarat.
  • It flows almost parallel to Narmada river but it is shorter in length.
  • It drains into Arabian Sea.

The Godavari Basin:

  • It is the largest peninsular river and is also known as “Dakshin Ganga”.
  • It originates from the slopes of Western Ghats in Nasik district of Maharashtra.
  • It covers parts of Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh, Orissa and Andhra Pradesh.
  • It is joined by many tributaries like Purna, Wardha, Pranhita, Manjra, Wainganga and Penganga.

The Mahanadi Basin:

  • It originates in the highlands of Chhattisgarh.
  • It drains into Bay of Bengal via Odisha.
  • Its basin covers parts of Maharashtra, Chhattisgarh, Odisha and Jharkhand.

The Krishna Basin:

  • It originates from a spring near Mahabaleshwar.
  • Some of its tributaries are Tungabhadra, Koyana, Ghatprabha, Musi and Bhima.
  • It covers parts of Maharashtra, Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh.

The Kaveri Basin:

  • It originates in Brahmagiri range of Western Ghats.
  • Some of its tributaries are Amravati, Bhavani, Hemavati and Kabini.
  • It covers parts of Karnataka, Kerala and Tamil Nadu.

Published by Priya Prakash

In the midst of winter, i found there was within me an invincible summer ~ Albert Camus

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