The river with their tributaries form the “river system“. The river systems of Himalayan rivers are:
The Indus River System:
- Indus river rises in Tibet, near Lake Mansoravar.
- It enters India via the Ladakh district.
- Tributaries like Zaskar, Nubra, Shyok and Hunza join it in Kashmir.
- Satluj, Beas, Ravi, Chenab and Jhelum join it near Mithankot in Pakistan.
- Indus is one of the longest rivers of the world.
- In India, Indus’s basin is located in Jammu, Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh and Punjab.
The Ganga River System:
- Ganga emerges from the mountains on to the plains in Haridwar.
- The river Yamuna meets the Ganga at Allahabad.
- Many tributaries from Himalayas like Ghaghara, Gandak and Kosi join Ganga.
- These three tributaries flood most parts of northern plains every year.
- The tributaries like Chambal, Betwa and Son come from the peninsular uplands.
- Farakka in West Bengal is the northernmost point of the Ganga delta.
- River bifurcates there, Bhagirathi-Hoogly flows southwards to the Bay of Bengal and the mainstream flows southwards and is joined by Brahmaputra, from there on it is known as Meghna.
The Brahmaputra River System:
- The Brahmaputra originates in Tibet.
- It enters India in Arunachal Pradesh via a gorge.
- In Arunachal Pradesh, it is called ‘Dihang’.
- It is joined by tributaries like Dibang, Lohit and Kenula in Assam.
- It forms many riverine islands in Assam because of its braided channels.
The peninsular rivers are comparatively smaller. The river basins formed by peninsular rivers are:
The Narmada Basin:
- Narmada river rises in the Amarkantak hills in Madhya Pradesh.
- It flows west and drains into Arabian Sea.
- On the its way to the sea, it creates many picturesque locations like Dhuadhar falls, Marble rocks, etc.
- Its tributaries are short and join the main stream at right angles.
The Tapi Basin:
- Tapi river originates in the Satpura Ranges in Betul district of Madhya Pradesh.
- It covers parts of Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh and Gujarat.
- It flows almost parallel to Narmada river but it is shorter in length.
- It drains into Arabian Sea.
The Godavari Basin:
- It is the largest peninsular river and is also known as “Dakshin Ganga”.
- It originates from the slopes of Western Ghats in Nasik district of Maharashtra.
- It covers parts of Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh, Orissa and Andhra Pradesh.
- It is joined by many tributaries like Purna, Wardha, Pranhita, Manjra, Wainganga and Penganga.
The Mahanadi Basin:
- It originates in the highlands of Chhattisgarh.
- It drains into Bay of Bengal via Odisha.
- Its basin covers parts of Maharashtra, Chhattisgarh, Odisha and Jharkhand.
The Krishna Basin:
- It originates from a spring near Mahabaleshwar.
- Some of its tributaries are Tungabhadra, Koyana, Ghatprabha, Musi and Bhima.
- It covers parts of Maharashtra, Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh.
The Kaveri Basin:
- It originates in Brahmagiri range of Western Ghats.
- Some of its tributaries are Amravati, Bhavani, Hemavati and Kabini.
- It covers parts of Karnataka, Kerala and Tamil Nadu.