Ch – 8 Devotional Paths To The Divine (Part 2)


  • Sufis were Muslim mystics.
  • They rejected outward religiosity and emphasised love and devotion to God and compassion towards all fellow beings.
  • They also rejected elaborate rituals.
  • They composed poems expressing their feelings.
  • Some of the famous Sufis of Central Asia were Rumi, Ghazzali and Sadi.
  • They used methods like zikr (chanting of a name or sacred formula), contemplation, sama (singing), raqs (dancing), discussion of parables, breath control, etc. under the guidance of pir (master).
  • The genealogy of Sufi saints is known as silsila.
  • Chishti silsila was one of the prominent silsilas of India.
  • It had teachers like Khwaja Moinuddin Chishti of Ajmer, Qutbuddin Bakhtiar Kaki of Delhi, Baba Farid of Punjab, Khwaja Nizamuddin Auliya of Delhi and Bandanawaz Gisudaraz of Gulbarga.
  • Sufis from Central Asia settled in India from eleventh century.
  • Many Sufi centres were developed during Sultanate rule.
  • Sufi masters held their assemblies in their Khanqahs (hospice).

New Religious Developments:

  • Around thirteenth century, new ideas regarding religions emerged.
  • Saints like Kabir and Baba Guru Nanak rejected orthodox ideas.
  • Saints like Tulsidas (Composed Ramacharitmanas in Awadhi) and Surdas (Composed Sursagara, Surasaravali and Sahitya Lahari), practiced existing religions but wanted to make it accessible to all.
  • Saint Shankaradeva of Assam built namghars to show his devotion towards Lord Vishnu.
  • Mirabai, a disciple of Ravidas, composed many bhajans regarding her devotion towards Lord Krishna.
  • These saints became popular because they composed their poems and other works in the local language


  • He grew up in a Muslim julahas (weavers) family in or near the city of Banaras.
  • He composed sakhis or pads and it was sung by wandering bhajan singers.
  • Some of his compositions were collected and preserved in Guru Granth Sahib, Panch Vani and Bijak.
  • He believed in a formless Supreme God and openly ridiculed external worship.
  • His poems were composed in Hindi but sometimes he used some cryptic language also.

Baba Guru Nanak:

  • He was born at Talwandi, Pakistan.
  • He established a centre at Kartarpur for singing hymns.
  • All his followers ate together in a common kitchen (langar).
  • The place came to be known as Dharmasal and later as Gurudwara.
  • His taught about nam (right worship), dan (welfare of others) and isnan (purity of conduct).
  • He appointed Lehna (later known as Guru Angad) as his successor, before his death in 1539.
  • Guru Angad compiled the works of Guru Nanak in his own new script Gurumukhi.
  • The next three successors also wrote under the name of “Nanak”.
  • All their works were compiled by Guru Arjan in 1604.
  • In this compilation, the writing of Shaikh Farid, Sant Kabir, Bhagat Namdev and Guru Tegh Bahadur were added.
  • This final compilation was approved by Guru Gobind Singh in 1706, and later it came to be known as Guru Granth Sahib.
  • By the beginning of seventeenth century, Ramdaspur (Amritsar) developed around the Harminder Sahib Gurudwara.
  • It was considered as a “state within a state”.
  • It was considered as a threat by Jahangir and he ordered the execution of Guru Arjan in 1606.
  • This incident led to the establishment of Khalsa by Guru Gobind Singh in 1699.

Published by Priya Prakash

In the midst of winter, i found there was within me an invincible summer ~ Albert Camus

5 thoughts on “Ch – 8 Devotional Paths To The Divine (Part 2)

    1. Well, I didn’t get any comments from you. And as for the reference material, if you would have visited my website, you would have known that all these posts come under the category of NCERT notes.


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