Ch 1 – The Rise Of Nationalism In Europe

Important Notes:

  • The Dream of Worldwide Democratic and Social Republic – The Pact Between Nations‘ was a print prepared by Frederic Sorrieu.
  • The end result of nationalism was the emergence of the ‘Nation-State’ instead of the multi-national dynastic empires of Europe.
  • French Revolution in 1789 led to the transfer of sovereignty from the monarchy to a body of French citizens.
  • The Civil Code of 1804 (usually known as Napoleonic Code) did away with all the privileges based on birth, established equality before law and secured the right to property.
  • The changes brought under Napoleonic Code were:
    • Administrative divisions were simplified
    • Feudal system was abolished
    • Peasants were freed from serfdom and manorial dues
    • Guild restrictions were removed in towns
    • Transport and Communication system were improved
    • Uniform laws, standardised weights and measures, and a common national currency facilitated the movement and exchange of goods and capital from one region to another.
  • Germany, Italy and Switzerland were divided into kingdoms, duchies and cantons whose rulers had their autonomous territories.
  • The term ‘liberalism‘ is derived from the Latin term ‘liber’ meaning free.
  • The delegates of Britain, Russia, Prussia and Austria drew up Treaty of Vienna in 1815.
  • The main intention was to restore monarchies that had been overthrown by Napoleon and create a new conservative order in Europe.
  • Italian revolutionary Giuseppe Mazzini founded two underground societies – Young Italy in Marseilles and Young Europe in Berne.
  • July revolution sparked an uprising in Brussels which led to Belgium breaking away from the United Kingdom of the Netherlands.
  • The Treaty of Constantinople of 1832 recognised Greece as an independent nation.
  • Abdication of monarch and a republic based on universal male suffrage had been proclaimed in France during the events of February 1848.
  • Poland was partitioned at the end of nineteenth century by the Great Powers – Russia, Prussia and Austria.
  • In January 1871, the Prussian king, William I, was proclaimed German emperor in a ceremony held at Versailles.
  • In 1861, Victor Emmanuel II was proclaimed king of United Italy.
  • Giuseppe Garibaldi is one of the most celebrated Italian freedom fighters.
  • The Act of Union (1717) between England and Scotland resulted in the formation of the ‘United Kingdom of Great Britain’.
  • Ireland was forcibly incorporated in to the United Kingdom in 1801 after the failure of revolt led by Wolfe Tone and his United Irishmen in 1798.
  • In nineteenth century, artists invented female allegories to represent the nations. For eg: Marianne in France, Germania in Germany.
  • The Balkans comprised of modern-day Romania, Bulgaria, Albania, Greece, Macedonia, Croatia, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Slovenia, Serbia and Montenegro whose inhabitants were broadly known as Slavs.

Published by Priya Prakash

In the midst of winter, i found there was within me an invincible summer ~ Albert Camus

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