Ch – 1 Crop Production & Management

Important Notes:

  • When plants of the same kind are grown and cultivated at one place on a large scale, it is called a “crop“.
  • The crops which are sown in the rainy season are called kharif crops. Eg: Paddy, Maize.
  • The crops grown in the winter season are called rabi crops. Eg: Wheat, Gram.
  • The eight practices of crop production are:
    • Preparation of soil:
    • It involves turning and loosening the soil, which is known as “tilling” or “ploughing“.
    • It is done using a plough.
    • It allows roots to penetrate deep in the soil.
    • Sowing:
    • Good healthy seeds give a high yield.
    • Seeds are sown at an appropriate distance, in order to avoid overcrowding.
    • Nowadays, seed drill is used to sow seeds.
    • Adding manure & fertilisers:
    • The substances which are added to the soil in the form of nutrients for healthy growth of plants are called manure and fertilisers.
    • Manure is an organic substance obtained from the decomposition of plant or animal wastes.
    • Fertilisers are produced in factories. Eg: urea, ammonium sulphate.
    • Irrigation:
    • The supply of water to crops at different intervals is called irrigation.
    • The sources of irrigation are wells, tubewells, ponds, canals, etc.
    • The traditional ways of irrigation are moat, chain pump, dhekli and rahat.
    • The modern ways of irrigation are sprinkler and drip irrigation system.
    • Protecting from weeds:
    • The undesirable plants that grow along the main crops are known as weeds.
    • Weeds can be removed manually by using khurpi.
    • Weeds can also be controlled by using weedicides like 2, 4-D.
    • Harvesting:
    • The cutting of mature crop is known as harvesting.
    • It is done by using sickle or harvester.
    • The grains are separated from chaff by using the process of threshing.
    • Storage:
    • To prevent the attack of bacteria, fungi and pests, grains are dried before storing.
    • Farmers usually store grains in jute bags or metallic bins.
    • Large scale storage of grains are done in silos and granaries.

Published by Priya Prakash

In the midst of winter, i found there was within me an invincible summer ~ Albert Camus

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