Ch – 2 The Nationalist Movement In Indo-China

Important Notes:

  • Indo-China comprises of present day-Vietnam, Laos and Cambodia.
  • The port of Faifo was founded by Portuguese merchants and was used by European trading companies.
  • French troops landed in Vietnam in 1858.
  • After the Franco-Chinese war, the French assumed control of Tonkin and Anaam and in 1887, French Indo-China was formed.
  • The French developed Vietnam by building irrigation works which led to the increase in rice production.
  • In the rural areas of Vietnam, landlordism spread and standard of living declined.
  • French opposed policies to give full access to French education to Vietnamese as they feared that they would lose job opportunities to educated Vietnamese.
  • The Tonkin Free School was started in 1907 to provide a Western-style education.
  • By 1920s, Vietnamese students started forming political parties such as the Party of Young Annan and publishing journals such as the Annamese Student, in order to fight for the benefit of the Vietnamese society.
  • Scholars Revolt was led by officials at the Imperial Court in 1868, against the spread of Catholicism and French power.
  • Huynh Phu So founded the anti-French Hoa Hao movement in 1939.
  • In the first decade of the twentieth century, ‘Go East Movement‘ became famous. In that movement, many students moved to Japan in order to acquire modern education.
  • Inspired by the movements in China, Vietnamese students established the Association for the Restoration of Vietnam.
  • The Great Depression of 1930s worsened the economical status of Vietnam.
  • In February 1930, Ho Chi Minh established Vietnamese Communist Party, which was later renamed as Indo-Chinese Communist Party.
  • In 1940, Japan occupied Vietnam.
  • The League for Independence of Vietnam, which came to be known as Vietminh fought Japanese occupation and recaptured Hanoi in September 1945.
  • The Democratic Republic of Vietnam was formed and Ho Chi Minh became the Chairman.
  • On 7 May 1954, the Vietminh army annihilated and captured many soldiers of the French Expeditionary Corps.
  • Later, in the peace negotiations in Geneva, it was decided that Ho Chi Minh and the communists will handle the power in north Vietnam while Bao Dai will rule over the south Vietnam.
  • But the Bao Dai regime was soon overthrown by Ngo Dinh Diem.
  • National Liberation Front along with Ho Chi Minh government tried to unite the whole country.
  • The US entered the war as they were worried that communists will gain power.
  • The US-Vietnam wars are called as the first television wars as the battle scenes were shown on the daily news programmes.
  • A peace settlement was signed in Paris in January 1974 to end the conflicts with US.
  • But the fight between National Liberation Front and Saigon regime continued.
  • The NLF occupied presidential palace in Saigon on 30 April 1975 and unified Vietnam.

Published by Priya Prakash

In the midst of winter, i found there was within me an invincible summer ~ Albert Camus

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