Ch – 2 Nutrition In Animals

Important Notes:

  • The breakdown of complex components of food into simpler substances is called digestion.
  • The alimentary canal is made up of buccal cavity, food pipe or oesophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, rectum and anus.
  • Various glands such as salivary glands, liver and pancreas secrete digestive juices.
  • The first set of teeth that grows during infancy and they fall off at the age between six to eight years is known as milk teeth.
  • The second set of teeth which replaces milk teeth is known as permanent teeth.
  • The process of food taking in the body is known as ingestion.
  • The saliva breaks down the starch into sugars.
  • The tongue mixes saliva with the food during chewing and helps in swallowing our food.
  • The shape of the stomach is like a flattened U and it is the widest part of the alimentary canal.
  • The inner lining of the stomach secretes mucous, hydrochloric acid and digestive juices.
  • Mucuos protects the inner lining of stomach.
  • The hydrochloric acid kills bacteria that enter along with the food.
  • Digestive juices break down proteins into simpler substances.
  • Small intestine is about 7.5 m long.
  • Liver is a reddish brown gland situated in the upper part of the abdomen on the right side.
  • Liver is the largest gland in our body.
  • Liver secretes bile juice which is stored in gall bladder.
  • Bile juice helps in digestion of fats.
  • The process in which the digested food passes into the blood vessels in the walls of intestine is known as absorption.
  • The inner walls of small intestine have small finger-like outgrowths known as villi.
  • The villi increase the surface area for absorption of the digested food.
  • The absorbed substances are transported via blood vessels to different organs of the body where they are used to build complex substances such as proteins required by the body. This process is known as assimilation.
  • Large intestine is 1.5 m in length.
  • The main function of large intestine is to absorb water and some salts from the undigested food material.
  • The remaining waste passes into rectum and remains there as semi-solid faeces.
  • The process is which faecal matter is removed from the body is known as egestion.

Published by Priya Prakash

In the midst of winter, i found there was within me an invincible summer ~ Albert Camus

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