Q.1: Who was considered a “foreigner” in the past ?
Ans: In the medieval period, a “foreigner” was any stranger who appeared say in a given village, someone who was not a part of that society or culture. A city dweller, therefore, might have regarded a forest dweller as a “foreigner”.
Q.2: State whether true or false:
a) We do not find inscriptions for the period after 700.
b) The Marathas asserted their political importance during this period.
c) Forest-dwellers were sometimes pushed out of their lands with the spread of agricultural settlements.
d) Sultan Ghiyasuddin Balban controlled Assam, Manipur and Kashmir.
Q.3: Fill in the blanks:
a) Archives are places where official documents are kept.
b) Ziyauddin Barani was a fourteenth-century chronicler.
c) Potatoes, chillies, corn, tea and coffee were some of the new crops introduced into the subcontinent during this period.
Q.4: List some of the technological changes associated with this period.
Ans: The technological changes associated with this period are:
i. The spinning wheel in weaving
ii. The Persian wheel in irrigation
iii. Firearms in combat
iv. Arrival of new foods and beverages
Q.5: What were some of the major religious developments during this period ?
Ans: Some of the major religious developments during this period are:
i. Merchants and migrants brought the teachings of holy Quran to India in the seventh century.
ii. The worship of new dieties.
iii. The construction of temples by royalty.
iv. Growing importance of brahmanas and priests.
v. Emergence of the idea of bhakti.
Q.6: In what ways has the meaning of the term “Hindustan” changed over the centuries ?
Ans: The term was used by Minhaj-i-Siraj in the thirteenth century for the areas of Punjab, Haryana and the lands between Ganga and Yamuna. In the early sixteenth century, Babur used this term to describe the geography, fauna and culture of the inhabitants of the subcontinent. The term was used in a political sense.
Q.7: How were the affairs of jatis regulated ?
Ans: The rules and regulations of jatis were enforced by an assembly of elders known as jati panchayat. Jatis were required to follow the rules of their villages. Several villages were governed by chieftains.
Q.8: What does the term pan-regional empire mean ?
Ans: The term pan-regional means the region that is spanning in diverse areas.
Q.9: What are the difficulties historians face in using manuscripts ?
Ans: While copying the scribes might have changed a word or sentence in the text. That’s why historians have to read different manuscript versions of the same text to guess what the author had originally written.
Q.10: Why do historians divide the past into periods ? Do they face any problems in doing so ?
Ans: Historians divide the past into periods because they believe that the study of time is made somewhat easier by dividing the past into large segments (periods) that possess shared characteristics. Yes, sometimes they face problems in doing so because such a division sometimes ignore the economic, social and cultural development of the period.