Q.1: Which is the main production activity in the villages across India ?
Ans: Farming is the main production activity in the villages across India.
Q.2: Name few non-farming activities.
Ans: Few non-farming activities are small manufacturing, transport, shop-keeping, etc.
Q.3: What is the aim of production ?
Ans: The aim of production is to produce goods and services that customers want.
Q.4: What are the four requirements for production of goods and services ?
Ans: The four requirements for production of goods and services are:
- Land – The first requirement is land and other natural resources such as water, forests, minerals.
- Labour – Some production work requires skilled workers to do the necessary tasks while others require workers to do the manual job.
- Physical Capital – The inputs required at every stage during production.
- Human Capital – The knowledge and enterprise to put the land, labour and physical capital together and produce an output.
Q.5: Name the types of physical capital.
Ans: The two types of physical capital are: Working capital ( Money on hand, raw materials ) and Fixed capital ( tools, machines, buildings ).
Q.6: What do you mean by factors of production ?
Ans: Every production is organised by combining land, labour, physical capital and human capital, which are known as factors of production.
Q.7: What is the standard unit of measuring land ?
Ans: The standard unit of measuring land is hectare.
Q.8: Which units are used to measure land in villages ?
Ans: Units such as bigha, guintha, etc. are used to measure land in villages.
Q.9: What does one hectare equal to ?
Ans: One hectare equals to the area of a square with one side measuring 100 metres.
Q.10: What per cent of total cultivated area in the country is irrigated today ?
Ans: A little less than 40 per cent of total cultivated area in the country is irrigated even today.
Q.11: How is yield measured ?
Ans: Yield is measured as crop produced on a given piece of land during a single season.
Q.12: Write about the difference between traditional and modern farming methods:
|Traditional Farming Method||Modern Farming Method|
|Traditional seeds are used.||High yielding varieties of seeds are used.|
|Farmers use cow-dung and other natural manure as fertilizers.||Farmers use chemical fertilizers.|
|Traditional seeds give low yield.||HYV seeds give high yield.|
|Less irrigation is required.||More irrigation is required.|
Q.13: Which farmers were the first to try out modern methods of farming ?
Ans: The farmers of Haryana, Punjab and Western Uttar Pradesh were the first to try out modern methods of farming.
Q.14: What are the cons of modern methods of farming ?
Ans: The cons of modern methods of farming are:
- Loss of soil fertility due to the increasing use of chemical fertilizers.
- Reduction in water table below the ground, due to the continuous use of ground water.
- Overuse of natural resources.
- Expensive as farmer has to buy everything from the market.
- Chemical fertilizers cause pollution.
Q.15: Which is the most abundant factor of production ?
Ans: Labour is the most abundant factor of production.
Q.16: From whom do small farmers borrow money ?
Ans: Small farmers borrow money from large farmers or money lenders.