Ch – 2 New Kings & Kingdoms

Important Notes :

  • By the seventh century, many new dynasties emerged in the Indian subcontinent,
  • The big landlords or warrior chiefs were acknowledged as “samanthas” by the existing kings.
  • As samanthas gained more power, they called themselves as “maha-samantha“, “maha-mandaleshvara“, etc.
  • Rashtrakutas were subordinated to the Chalukyas of Karnataka.
  • Dantidurga was the chief of Rashtrakutas, who overthrew Chalukyas.
  • Kadamba Mayurasharman and Gurjara-Pratihara Harichandra succesfully established kingdoms in Karnataka and Rajasthan respectively.
  • Many new titles like “maharaja-adhiraja“, “tribhuvana-chakravartin“, etc. were adopted by these new kings.
  • The inscriptions of Cholas in Tamil Nadu mentions about various taxes like “vetti” (taken in the form of forced labour), “kadamai” (land revenue), etc.
  • Prashastis were composed by Brahmanas.
  • Prashastis tell us how the rulers wanted to depict themselves.
  • Kalhana wrote a long Sanskrit poem containing the history of kings who ruled over Kashmir.
  • Rulers of Gurjara-Pratihara, Rashtrakuta and Pala dynasties fought Kannauj. This fight was known as “tripartite struggle“.
  • Sultan Mahmud of Ghazni ruled from 997 to 1030. He raided the subcontinent, including Somnath temple of Gujarat, several times.
  • “Kitab-al-hind” was written by Al-Biruni.
  • Chahamanas (Chauhans) ruled over the region of Ajmer and Delhi.
  • The famous Chahmana ruler was Prithviraja III (1168-1192). He defeated Sultan Mohammed Ghori in 1191, but lost war against him in 1192.
  • Muttaraiyar were subordinate to the Pallava kings of Kanchipuram.
  • Vijayalaya, who belonged to Chola dynasty from Uraiyur, captured the land of Muttaraiyar and built the town of Thanjavur.
  • Rajaraja I was considered as the most powerful Chola king. He became a king in 985.
  • The temples of Thanjavur and Gangaikondacholapuram were built by Rajaraja and Rajendra respectively.
  • Settlements of peasants were known as “Ur“.
  • Groups of such villages formed larger units called “Nadu“.
  • Associations of traders were known as “nagarams“.
  • Land of non-brahmana peasant proprietors was known as “vellanvagai“.
  • Land gifted to Brahmanas was known as “brahmadeya“.
  • Land for maintenance of school was known as “shalabhoga“.
  • Land gifted to temple was known as “devadana” or “tirunamattukkani“.
  • Land donated to Jaina institutions was known as “pallichchhandam“.

Published by Priya Prakash

In the midst of winter, i found there was within me an invincible summer ~ Albert Camus

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