- Delhi became an important city in twelfth century.
- It became the capital of a kingdom under Tomara Rajputs.
- The Tomaras were defeated by Chauhans in the twelfth century.
- Coins minted in Delhi were known as “dehliwal“.
- The language of administration under Delhi Sultans was Persian.
- Tarikh/Tawarikh was/were written by learned men like secretaries, administrators, poets and courtiers.
- Steps in preparation of manuscripts:
- Preparing the paper
- Writing the text
- Melting gold to highlight important words and messages
- Preparing the binding
- The authors of tawarikh lived in cities and wrote about kings in the hope of getting rich rewards.
- In 1236, Sultan IItutmish’s daughter Raziyya became became Sultan, but the chronicler Minhaj-i-siraj was not comfortable at having a queen as ruler. So she was removed from throne in 1240.
- Rudramadevi, a queen of Kakatiya dyansty of Warangal, changed her name on inscriptions and pretended to be a man.
- Queen Didda ruled in Kashmir from 980 to 1003.
- The Delhi Sultanate expanded during the reigns of Ghiyasuddin Balban, Alauddin Khalji and Muhammad Tughluq.
- Military expeditions into southern India started during the reign of Alauddin Khalji and culminated with Muhammad Tughluq.
- Quwwat-al-Islam was the congregational mosque of the first city built by Delhi Sultans described in the chronicles as Dehli-i-kuhna.
- Begumpuri mosque was the main mosque of Muhammad Tighluq’s new capital “Jahanpanah” in Delhi.
- During prayer, muslims stand facing Mecca, it is known as “qibla“. In India, it is to the west.
- Moth ki Masjid was built by the minister of Sikandar Lodhi.
- The special slaves purchased for military services were known as “bandagans“.
- The Sultans appointed military commanders as governors of lands of varying sizes, these lands were called as “iqtas” and their holders were known as “iqtadars” or “muqtis“.
- The two main jobs of muqtis were to lead military campaigns and maintain law and order in their iqtas.
- The three types of taxes under Sultanate rule were:
- Tax on cultivation called “kharaj”
- Tax on cattles
- Tax on houses
- Mongols under Genghis Khan invaded Transoxiana in north-east Iran in 1219.
- Mongol attacks increased on Delhi Sultanate during the reigns of Alauddin Khalji and Muhammad Tughluq.
- Muhammad Tughlaq was the first Sultan who planned a campaign to attack the Mongols.
- After Tughluqs, the Sayyid and Lodhi dynasties ruled till 1526.
- Sher Shah Suri defeated Mughal emperor Humayun and established his own dynasty which ruled for 15 years.
The rulers of Delhi
|Tomaras||early twelfth century – 1165|
|Ananga Pala||1130 – 1145|
|Chaunhans||1165 – 1192|
|Prithviraj Chaunhan||1175 – 1192|
|Early Turkish Rulers||1206 – 1290|
|Qutbuddin Aybak||1206 – 1210|
|Shamsuddin Iltutmish||1210 – 1236|
|Raziyya||1236 – 1240|
|Ghiyasuddin Balban||1266 – 1287|
|Khalji Dynasty||1290 – 1320|
|Jalaluddin Khalji||1290 – 1296|
|Alauddin Khalji||1296 – 1316|
|Tughluq Dynasty||1320 – 1414|
|Ghiyasuddin Tughluq||1320 – 1324|
|Muhammad Tughluq||1324 – 1351|
|Firuz Shah Tughluq||1351 – 1388|
|Sayyid Dyansty||1414 – 1451|
|Khizr Khan||1414 – 1421|
|Lodi Dynasty||1451 – 1526|
|Bahlul Lodhi||1451 – 1489|