Ch – 3 The Delhi Sultans

Important Notes:

  • Delhi became an important city in twelfth century.
  • It became the capital of a kingdom under Tomara Rajputs.
  • The Tomaras were defeated by Chauhans in the twelfth century.
  • Coins minted in Delhi were known as “dehliwal“.
  • The language of administration under Delhi Sultans was Persian.
  • Tarikh/Tawarikh was/were written by learned men like secretaries, administrators, poets and courtiers.
  • Steps in preparation of manuscripts:
    • Preparing the paper
    • Writing the text
    • Melting gold to highlight important words and messages
    • Preparing the binding
  • The authors of tawarikh lived in cities and wrote about kings in the hope of getting rich rewards.
  • In 1236, Sultan IItutmish’s daughter Raziyya became became Sultan, but the chronicler Minhaj-i-siraj was not comfortable at having a queen as ruler. So she was removed from throne in 1240.
  • Rudramadevi, a queen of Kakatiya dyansty of Warangal, changed her name on inscriptions and pretended to be a man.
  • Queen Didda ruled in Kashmir from 980 to 1003.
  • The Delhi Sultanate expanded during the reigns of Ghiyasuddin Balban, Alauddin Khalji and Muhammad Tughluq.
  • Military expeditions into southern India started during the reign of Alauddin Khalji and culminated with Muhammad Tughluq.
  • Quwwat-al-Islam was the congregational mosque of the first city built by Delhi Sultans described in the chronicles as Dehli-i-kuhna.
  • Begumpuri mosque was the main mosque of Muhammad Tighluq’s new capital “Jahanpanah” in Delhi.
  • During prayer, muslims stand facing Mecca, it is known as “qibla“. In India, it is to the west.
  • Moth ki Masjid was built by the minister of Sikandar Lodhi.
  • The special slaves purchased for military services were known as “bandagans“.
  • The Sultans appointed military commanders as governors of lands of varying sizes, these lands were called as “iqtas” and their holders were known as “iqtadars” or “muqtis“.
  • The two main jobs of muqtis were to lead military campaigns and maintain law and order in their iqtas.
  • The three types of taxes under Sultanate rule were:
    • Tax on cultivation called “kharaj”
    • Tax on cattles
    • Tax on houses
  • Mongols under Genghis Khan invaded Transoxiana in north-east Iran in 1219.
  • Mongol attacks increased on Delhi Sultanate during the reigns of Alauddin Khalji and Muhammad Tughluq.
  • Muhammad Tughlaq was the first Sultan who planned a campaign to attack the Mongols.
  • After Tughluqs, the Sayyid and Lodhi dynasties ruled till 1526.
  • Sher Shah Suri defeated Mughal emperor Humayun and established his own dynasty which ruled for 15 years.

Timeline:

The rulers of Delhi

Rajput Dynasties
Tomarasearly twelfth century – 1165
Ananga Pala1130 – 1145
Chaunhans1165 – 1192
Prithviraj Chaunhan1175 – 1192
Early Turkish Rulers1206 – 1290
Qutbuddin Aybak1206 – 1210
Shamsuddin Iltutmish1210 – 1236
Raziyya1236 – 1240
Ghiyasuddin Balban1266 – 1287
Khalji Dynasty1290 – 1320
Jalaluddin Khalji 1290 – 1296
Alauddin Khalji1296 – 1316
Tughluq Dynasty1320 – 1414
Ghiyasuddin Tughluq1320 – 1324
Muhammad Tughluq1324 – 1351
Firuz Shah Tughluq1351 – 1388
Sayyid Dyansty1414 – 1451
Khizr Khan1414 – 1421
Lodi Dynasty1451 – 1526
Bahlul Lodhi1451 – 1489

Published by Priya Prakash

In the midst of winter, i found there was within me an invincible summer ~ Albert Camus

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