Ch – 2 Globe : Latitudes & Longitudes

Important Notes:

  • Earth is slightly flattened at the North and South Poles and bulged in the middle.
  • An imaginary line running through the middle of the earth, dividing it into two equal parts is known as “equator“.
  • The northern half of the earth is known as “Northern hemisphere“.
  • The southern half of the earth is known as “Southern hemisphere“.
  • All parallel circles from the equator up to the poles are called “Parallels of latitudes“.
  • The equator represents zero degree latitude.
  • The distance from equator to either poles is one-fourth of a circle, so 90 degrees north latitude marks the North Pole and 90 degrees south latitude marks the South Pole.
  • All the parallels north to the equator are known as “North latitudes“.
  • All the parallels south to the equator are known as “South latitudes“.
  • The other important parallels of latitudes are : Tropic of Cancer, Tropic of Capricorn, Antarctic Circle and Arctic Circle.
  • The area between the Tropic of Cancer and Tropic of Capricorn receives maximum heat, as the mid-day sun is exactly overhead at these latitudes. This area is known as “Torrid zone“.
  • The angle of sun’s rays go decreasing towards the poles.
  • The areas between Tropic of Cancer and Arctic Circle and the areas between Tropic of Capricorn and Antarctic Circle receives moderate heat, and are known as “Temperate zones“.
  • The areas between Arctic Circle and North Pole and areas between Antarctic Circle and South Pole are very cold, and are known as “Frigid zones“.
  • The lines running from North to South Poles are known as “Meridians of longitudes” and the distances between them are measured in “degrees of longitudes“.
  • Each degree is further divided into minutes, and minutes into seconds.
  • All meridians are of equal length.
  • The meridian passing through the British Royal Observatory, Greenwich is considered as the zero degree longitude and is known as the “Prime Meridian“. And from it we count 180 degrees eastward as well as 180 degrees westward.
  • The Prime Meridian divides earth into two equal halves, namely Eastern hemisphere and Western hemisphere.
  • When the Prime Meridian of Greenwich has the sun at the highest point in the sky, all the places along this meridian will have a mid-day or noon.
  • The places east to the Greenwich will be ahead of Greenwich time and the places west to the Greenwich will be behind it.

Published by Priya Prakash

In the midst of winter, i found there was within me an invincible summer ~ Albert Camus

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