Answer the following:
Q.1: The process in which a source of energy from outside the body of organism is transferred to the inside is known as ________________.
Q.2: Which are some of the most common chemical means to break-down molecules ?
Ans: Oxidising-reducing reactions
Q.3: The process of acquiring oxygen from outside the body and to use it in the process of break-down of food sources for cellular needs is known as ________________.
Ans: cellular respiration
Q.4: The organisms use bio-catalysts called _____________ for breaking complex substances into simple substances.
Q.5: Carbon and energy requirements of the autotrophic organism are fulfilled by _____________.
Q.6: ____________ are utilised to provide energy to the plant.
Q.7: Desert plants take up carbon dioxide at _____________.
Q.8: The opening and closing of the pores of stomata is a function of ______________.
Ans: guard cells
Q.9: _____________ is an essential element used in the synthesis of proteins and other compounds.
Q.10: In Amoeba’s food vacuole complex substances are broken down into simpler ones and which then diffuse into _______________.
Q.11: The alimentary canal is a tube that extends from _____________ to _____________.
Ans: Mouth, Anus
Q.12: The saliva contains an enzyme called ________________.
Ans: salivary amylase
Q.13: The _______________ creates an acidic medium which facilitates the action of enzyme pepsin.
Ans: hydrochloric acid
Q.14: The ___________ protects the inner lining of the stomach from the action of hydrochloric acid under normal conditions.
Q.15: The exit of food from the stomach is controlled by _____________.
Ans: sphincter muscle
Q.16: ________________ is the longest part of the alimentary canal.
Q.17: The _____________ is the site of complete digestion of carbohydrates, proteins and fats.
Ans: small intestine
Q.18: ___________ break the fat into smaller globules increasing the efficiency of enzyme action.
Ans: Bile salts
Q.19: The ______________ is the enzyme for digesting proteins.
Q.20: The ______________ is the enzyme for breaking down emulsified fats.
Q.21: The exit of waste material from the body is regulated by ________________.
Ans: anus sphincter
Q.22: Dental caries causes gradual softening of ____________ and _____________.
Ans: enamel, dentine
Q.23: In respiration process, the first step is the break-down of glucose, a six-carbon molecule, into a three-carbon molecule called ________________.
Q.24: The process of breaking down of glucose takes place in ________________.
Q.25: Breaking down of pyruvate using oxygen takes place in _______________.
Q.26: ____________ is the energy currency for most cellular processes.
Q.27: When the terminal phosphate linkage in ATP is broken using water, the energy equivalent to _____________ is released.
Ans: 30.5 kJ/mol
Q.28: State the purposes for which ATP can be used.
Ans: contraction of muscles, protein synthesis, conduction of nervous impulses
Q.29: The ____________ provide a surface where the exchange of gases can take place.
Q.30: In humans, the respiratory pigment is _______________ which has a very high affinity for oxygen.