Ch – 4 Climate (Part 1)

Climate refers to the sum total of weather conditions and variations over a large period of time.

Weather refers to the state of atmosphere over an area at any point of time.

The elements that affect the weather and climate are :

Temperature, Atmospheric Pressure, Wind, Humidity, Precipitation

Climatic Controls:

The factors controlling the climate of any place are:


  • Due to the curvature of earth, the amount of solar energy received varies from latitude to latitude.
  • Air temperature generally decreases from equator to poles.


  • As one goes to higher altitudes, the atmosphere becomes less dense and temperature decreases.

Pressure and Wind system:

  • Pressure and wind system depends on the latitude and altitude of any particular area.
  • It also influences the temperature and rainfall pattern.

Distance from the sea:

  • As the distance from the sea increases, people experience extreme weather conditions and vice versa.
  • This condition is known as continentality.

Ocean Currents:

  • Along with onshore winds , ocean currents affect the climate of coastal areas.


  • It plays a major role in determining the climate of a place.
  • For eg: the high mountains act as a barrier for cold or hot winds. If they are high enough, they may obstruct the passage of rain-bearing winds.

Factors Affecting Indian Climate:


  • Tropic of Cancer passes almost through the middle of India.
  • All the areas below the Tropic of Cancer, experience tropical climate.
  • All the remaining areas lying north to the Tropic of Cancer, experience sub-tropical climate.


  • The Himalayas prevent the cold winds from entering Indian subcontinent.
  • The coastal area has a maximum elevation of about 30 metres.
  • Because of the above mentioned reasons, India experience milder winters as compared to central Asia.

Pressure and Winds:

  • During winter, cold dry winds blow from Himalayas to low pressure areas over the oceans to the south.
  • In summer, low pressure area develops over interior Asia as well as northwestern India.
  • During this, air moves from high pressure area over Southern Indian ocean, in a south easterly direction, crosses the equator, and turns right towards the low-pressure areas over Indian subcontinent.
  • These are known as Southwest Monsoon winds.
  • The western cyclonic disturbances experienced in the north and northwestern India are brought by subtropical westerly jet streams.
  • The subtropical easterly jet streams blows over peninsular India during summer months.

Published by Priya Prakash

In the midst of winter, i found there was within me an invincible summer ~ Albert Camus

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