- The solid portion of the earth where we live is called Lithosphere.
- The gaseous layer that surrounds the earth is known as atmosphere.
- Hydrosphere comprises of water in all its forms, i.e. ice, water and water vapour.
- Biosphere is the narrow zone where we find land, water and air together, which contains all forms of life.
- The large landmasses are known as continents.
- The huge water bodies are known as oceans.
- Elevation of land is measured from the level of the sea, which is taken as zero.
- The highest mountain peak is Mt.Everest is 8,848 m above the sea level.
- The greatest depth is Mariana Trench in Pacific Ocean which is at 11,022 m.
There are seven major continents.
- It is the largest continent.
- It covers one-third of total land area of the earth.
- It lies in the eastern hemisphere.
- The Tropic of Cancer passes through this continent.
- It is separated from Europe by the Ural mountains on the west.
- Combined landmass of Europe and Asia is known as Eurasia.
- It lies to the west of Asia.
- The Arctic Circle passes through it.
- It is bound by water on three sides.
- It is the second largest continent.
- The Equator passes almost through the middle of this continent.
- It is the only continent through which Tropic of Cancer, Equator and Tropic of Capricorn pass.
- It is bound by oceans and seas on all sides.
- The world’s largest hot desert, Sahara desert, is located here.
- The world’s longest river, Nile, flows through Africa.
- It is the third largest continent.
- It is linked to South America by Isthmus of Panama.
- It lies completely in the Northern and Western hemisphere.
- It lies mostly in Southern Hemisphere.
- The world’s longest mountain range, Andes, runs through it.
- It has the world’s largest river, Amazon.
- It is the smallest continent that lies entirely in the Southern hemisphere.
- It is also known as island continent.
- It lies completely in the Southern hemisphere.
- The South Pole lies almost at the center of this continent.
- Research stations are situated here.
- India’s research stations namely Dakshin Gangotri and Maitri are situated here.
There are four major oceans.
- It is the largest ocean.
- It is spread over one-third portion of earth.
- It is circular in shape.
- Asia, Australia, North and South Americas surround it.
- It is the second largest ocean.
- It is ‘S’ shaped.
- It is flanked by the North and South Americas on the western side, and Europe and Africa on the eastern side.
- It’s coastline is highly dented.
- It is the busiest ocean.
- It is the only ocean named after a country.
- It’s shape is almost triangular.
- In the north, it is bound by Asia, in the west by Africa and in the east by Australia.
- It is located within the Arctic Circle and surrounds the North Pole.
- It is connected with the Pacific Ocean by Berring strait.
- It is bound by northern coasts of North America and Eurasia.
- The atmosphere extends up to a height of 1,600 km.
- It is divided into five layers based on composition, temperature and other properties.
- These layers are troposphere, stratosphere, mesosphere, thermosphere and exosphere.
- The atmosphere is mainly composed of nitrogen and oxygen.
- The density of atmosphere varies with height.
- It is maximum at the sea level and decreases rapidly as we go up.
- The temperature also decreases as we go up.
- Life exists in this domain.
- The organisms of biosphere can be divided into plant kingdom and animal kingdom.
- The three domains of earth interact with each other and affect each other in one way or another.
- There is a need to limit the uses of resources of earth to maintain the balance of nature between the domains of the lithosphere, atmosphere and hydrosphere.