Ch – 5 Major Domains Of The Earth

Important Notes:

  • The solid portion of the earth where we live is called Lithosphere.
  • The gaseous layer that surrounds the earth is known as atmosphere.
  • Hydrosphere comprises of water in all its forms, i.e. ice, water and water vapour.
  • Biosphere is the narrow zone where we find land, water and air together, which contains all forms of life.
  • The large landmasses are known as continents.
  • The huge water bodies are known as oceans.
  • Elevation of land is measured from the level of the sea, which is taken as zero.
  • The highest mountain peak is Mt.Everest is 8,848 m above the sea level.
  • The greatest depth is Mariana Trench in Pacific Ocean which is at 11,022 m.


There are seven major continents.


  • It is the largest continent.
  • It covers one-third of total land area of the earth.
  • It lies in the eastern hemisphere.
  • The Tropic of Cancer passes through this continent.
  • It is separated from Europe by the Ural mountains on the west.
  • Combined landmass of Europe and Asia is known as Eurasia.


  • It lies to the west of Asia.
  • The Arctic Circle passes through it.
  • It is bound by water on three sides.


  • It is the second largest continent.
  • The Equator passes almost through the middle of this continent.
  • It is the only continent through which Tropic of Cancer, Equator and Tropic of Capricorn pass.
  • It is bound by oceans and seas on all sides.
  • The world’s largest hot desert, Sahara desert, is located here.
  • The world’s longest river, Nile, flows through Africa.

North America:

  • It is the third largest continent.
  • It is linked to South America by Isthmus of Panama.
  • It lies completely in the Northern and Western hemisphere.

South America:

  • It lies mostly in Southern Hemisphere.
  • The world’s longest mountain range, Andes, runs through it.
  • It has the world’s largest river, Amazon.


  • It is the smallest continent that lies entirely in the Southern hemisphere.
  • It is also known as island continent.


  • It lies completely in the Southern hemisphere.
  • The South Pole lies almost at the center of this continent.
  • Research stations are situated here.
  • India’s research stations namely Dakshin Gangotri and Maitri are situated here.


There are four major oceans.

Pacific Ocean:

  • It is the largest ocean.
  • It is spread over one-third portion of earth.
  • It is circular in shape.
  • Asia, Australia, North and South Americas surround it.

Atlantic Ocean:

  • It is the second largest ocean.
  • It is ‘S’ shaped.
  • It is flanked by the North and South Americas on the western side, and Europe and Africa on the eastern side.
  • It’s coastline is highly dented.
  • It is the busiest ocean.

Indian Ocean:

  • It is the only ocean named after a country.
  • It’s shape is almost triangular.
  • In the north, it is bound by Asia, in the west by Africa and in the east by Australia.

Arctic Ocean:

  • It is located within the Arctic Circle and surrounds the North Pole.
  • It is connected with the Pacific Ocean by Berring strait.
  • It is bound by northern coasts of North America and Eurasia.


  • The atmosphere extends up to a height of 1,600 km.
  • It is divided into five layers based on composition, temperature and other properties.
  • These layers are troposphere, stratosphere, mesosphere, thermosphere and exosphere.
  • The atmosphere is mainly composed of nitrogen and oxygen.
  • The density of atmosphere varies with height.
  • It is maximum at the sea level and decreases rapidly as we go up.
  • The temperature also decreases as we go up.


  • Life exists in this domain.
  • The organisms of biosphere can be divided into plant kingdom and animal kingdom.
  • The three domains of earth interact with each other and affect each other in one way or another.
  • There is a need to limit the uses of resources of earth to maintain the balance of nature between the domains of the lithosphere, atmosphere and hydrosphere.

Published by Priya Prakash

In the midst of winter, i found there was within me an invincible summer ~ Albert Camus

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